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Назва: Архітектурно-планувальна організація, озеленення та благоустрій територій навчальних корпусів університетів у м.Києві
Автори: Крачковська, Мар'яна Володимирівна
Ключові слова: території навчальних корпусів, університет, архітектурно-планувальна структура, озеленення, благоустрій
Дата публікації: 2016
Бібліографічний опис: Архітектурно-планувальна організація, озеленення та благоустрій територій навчальних корпусів університетів у м.Києві: автореф. дис. на здобуття наук. ступеня кандидата с.-г. наук: 06.03.01 - лісові культури та фітомеліорація / М.В Крачковська ; Національний університет біоресурсів і природокористування України. - К., 2016. - 25 с
Короткий огляд (реферат): Дисертація на здобуття наукового ступеня кандидата сільськогосподарських наук за спеціальністю 06.03.01 – лісові культури та фітомеліорація. – Національний університет біоресурсів і природокористування України, Київ, 2016. Дисертацію присвячено вивченню особливостей архітектурно-планувальної організації, озеленення та благоустрою територій навчальних корпусів університетів у м. Києві. У дисертаційній роботі вперше проведено ретроспективний аналіз формування територій навчальних корпусів 18 національних університетів м. Києва та оцінено особливості трансформації їх архітектурно-планувальної організації, озеленення та благоустрою; здійснено аналіз об’ємно-просторової організації і виявлено основні засоби підкреслення функцій та розкриття тематичного навантаження територій національних університетів м. Києва; визначено кількісний та якісний склад видової та внутрішньовидової різноманітності деревних рослин, у тому числі оцінено стан вікових дерев; проведено комплексне оцінювання рослинних угруповань та визначено роль насаджень у формуванні об’ємно-просторової структури територій навчальних корпусів; розроблено методичні підходи щодо аналізу ландшафтної організації та стану благоустрою територій вищих навчальних закладів
Опис: Thesis for awarding of scientific degree of candidate of agricultural sciences in specialty 06.03.01 – forestry plantation and phytomelioration. – National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, 2016. The thesis deals with the architectural and planning organization, landscaping and greening particularities of the National Universities campus buildings territories in Kyiv. In the thesis are summarized theoretical principles and practical aspects of the territories of the oldest universities in Kyiv, are identified particularities of the landscape organizing during their historical development. Territories functional zoning, architectural and planning structure, composition and spatial organization were analyzed. Plant communities comprehensive assessment and the role of planting in the academic buildings territories three-dimensional structure formation was conducted. Modern higher educational establishments are powerful knowledge-intensive, social and cultural centers that form highly qualified skilled potential for different sectors of industry and social spheres. Higher educational establishments buildings and territories play the role of dynamic multifunctional urban complexes being architectural accents in city structure. Besides, nowadays, university territories are unique landscape and architectural complexes, that perform not only educational function, but play an important role in cultural development, determine scientific potential of Ukrainian nation and belong to Kyiv sightseeing objects. In certain historical periods the problem of higher educational establishments territories formation was discussed both by Ukrainian and foreign scientists. The results of the research are devoted to the architectural development of the higher educational establishments in Kyiv in case of forms styles changes. The analysis of written, cartographic and iconographic sources was shown that in the historical aspect the higher educational establishments territories organization can be divided into three stages. The first lasted from the time of ancient Greece till the first half of the 12th century, is characterized by using of different, even random environments for studying. The second stage, which lasted from the second half of the twelfth century till the end of the 16th century, when universities received territorial stability, was characterized by appearing of first campuses with simplified three-dimensional structures. The third stage began in the 17th century and is lasting nowadays is characterized by the multi-functional integrated architectural and planning elements development, followed by the educational and cultural centers formation in cities. During our research we have investigated that the development and formation of territories of Kyiv higher educational establishments may be divided into three periods: early – from the 17th century till 1920-ieths, middle – from 1920-ieths till 1991, modern – Ukrainian Independence period. The specified periodization is based on peculiarities of historical and cultural development of Ukraine. Every period has its characteristics features depending on social and political situation in the country. According to Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine, there are 49 higher educational establishments of III–IV accreditation levels of state ownership, including 18 National Universities in Kyiv. The subject of our research is the territories of 137 academic buildings. The analysis of architectural structure, planning, landscaping and greening of the National Universities academic buildings is conducted due to their rich history comparing to other higher educational establishments. National Universities academic buildings are objects of cultural heritage that represent Ukraine at global level. According to their location in Kyiv National Universities academic buildings are classified into three types of accommodation: local – academic buildings are concentrated within the campus; locally branched – buildings are located by groups in different parts of the city, having their own surrounding territory with clearly defined borders and zoning; branched – academic buildings are located singly in many parts of the city, at the same time they may not have their own surrounding territory for greening. The inventarisation and evaluation of territories plantation National Universities current state were made according to Inventory Instructions for green planting. The method of our evaluation is field route investigation. The next step was to create an electronic database of inventory results of information about plants (type of landscape plantings, plant species composition, quantity, vital form, age group, size of plant types in plantations) and systematization of each taxonomic unit. The list of rare plant species were determined according to the Red Book of Ukraine (2009), the list of the Berne Convention (1982) and the Red List of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (2006). The territories greening level was determined in two stages: first – field measuring (for small areas) or determination of green areas using «Area calculator tool by Google maps»; the second – determining the share of green areas in accordance with the total area of academic buildings placement locations. The age structure of plantings was assessed using historical data and literature, that indicates historical information concerning the development of research territories in their absence – empirically, based on general condition of the plants, obtained taxation measurements and with the conditions of growing. To determine the age classes was used A. Voronov’s method (1973). Allocation of planting to life forms were carried out by I. Serebryakov’s classification (1962). The territories composition planting assessment was made by method «Principles of Landscape Design» (2007). The landscapes coloring analysis was performed according to the assessment of methodology of color landscape particularities (2012). The distribution of forms by leafage emotional impact on a person was performed according to developed scheme, which is based on the classification of various geometrical shapes depending on perception. Based on the particularities analysis of formation, development and National Universities academic buildings territories in Kyiv complex research, developed the scientific basis assessment of the current state of their landscape organization, including a great number of aspects that are essential to objects formation and reconstruction. The main aspects of National Universities academic buildings territories in Kyiv complex assessment include: cultural and historical territory assessment; territory organization according to modern normative and legal documents; territory three-dimensional organization assessment; plants and flower design assessment; landscape color characteristics analysis; territory subject disclosure assessment
URI (Уніфікований ідентифікатор ресурсу): http://dglib.nubip.edu.ua:8080/jspui/handle/123456789/3959
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