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Назва: Біотехнологія утилізації відходів птахівництва з одержанням біогазу
Автори: Жадан, Сергій Олександрович
Ключові слова: курячий послід, метанова ферментація, біогаз, амонійний азот, сульфіди, інгібування
Дата публікації: 2018
Бібліографічний опис: Біотехнологія утилізації відходів птахівництва з одержанням біогазу: автореф. дис. ... кандидата тенічних наук 03.00.20 "Біотехнологія" / С.О. Жадан ; Національний університет біоресурсів і природокористування України. - К., 2018. - 27 с
Короткий огляд (реферат): Дисертація на здобуття наукового ступеня кандидата технічних наук зі спеціальності 03.00.20 «Біотехнологія». Національний університет біоресурсів і природокористування України, Київ, 2018. Дисертацію присвячено дослідженню утилізації відходів птахівництва з отриманням біогазу, пошуку шляхів мінімізації споживання води й уникнення інгібування процесу метанової ферментації. Визначено закономірності процесу метанової ферментації курячого посліду за різної вологості субстрату в мезофільних і термофільних умовах, а також проведено їх порівняння. Проведено оцінку доцільності використання рециркуляції газової фази з її очищенням у процесі метанової ферментації курячого посліду для підвищення стабільності й ефективності процесу. Запропоновано й апробовано новий метод контролю концентрації амонійного азоту в біогазовому реакторі. Досліджено вплив вилучення інгібіторів на метаногенез з курячого посліду. Розроблено технологію анаеробної переробки курячого посліду, яка дозволяє зменшити інгібування метаногенезу за високих концентрацій сухих речовин, і оцінено економічну ефективність її використання
Опис: The thesis for scientific degree of candidate of technical sciences in specialty 03.00.20 «Biotechnology». National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine. Kyiv, 2018. The thesis is devoted to the study of poultry waste utilization with obtaining of biogas, finding ways to minimize water consumption and to avoid inhibition of methane fermentation process. In the range of moisture content from 72 to 82 % production of biogas and methane from a unit of VS and unit of volume during the period of the experiment in mesophilic mode was higher than in thermophilic mode, and at a moisture of 84 to 99 %, on the contrary. The concentration of methane in the produced biogas was increased with increasing of manure moisture in both temperature modes. With increasing of substrate moisture content to 80 % methane concentration was higher in mesophilic mode, and from 82 % in thermophilic. In order to establish feasibility of solid methane fermentation in both temperature modes the amount of energy that can be produced from unit of weight and the amount of energy required to initial heating of the substrate was compared. If the solid fermentation is considered as the waste treatment with a moisture content to 80 %, the production of biogas in thermophilic mode, unlike mesophilic is inappropriate in in terms of energetics. Using the results of methane fermentation of chicken manure in batch mode, determined kinetic parameters of the reaction of aceroclastic methanogenesis and used to simulate the production of methane in continuous mode. Proceeding from the fact that for methane fermentation in a continuous mode chicken manure must have necessary for that consistency, mathematical modeling of methane production was conducted for influent moisture content in the range from 86 to 99 %. Established the technological parameters corresponding to the different modes of operation of a biogas plant in the mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. The maximum yield of methane from unit of volume in the mesophilic mode is observed at substrate moisture content of 88 % and hydravlic retention time of 14.75 days, and in the thermophilic mode at substrate moisture content of 92 % and hydraulic retention time of 4.88 days. Biogas production is justified from the energy point of view in the range of values of substrate moisture content from 86 to 96 %. Optimal values of substrate moisture content for the production of methane from chicken manure taking into account the cost of maintaining a temperature mode in mesophilic conditions is 90 %, and thermophilic – 92 %. Thermophilic mode enables the replacement of large quantity of natural gas at the enterprise, causes lower capital costs for the construction of a biogas plant and a greater degree of decontamination. A comparison of the amount of energy that can be obtained from biogas and the amount of energy needed for work of the compressor to reduce the content of ammonia nitrogen and sulfides to acceptable for biogas plant level was conducted. Minimal energy consumption by compressor when removing ammonium nitrogen ranges from 41.1 to 233.6 %, and sulfides – from 0.6 to 4.9 % relative to the amount of energy that can be obtained from biogas. At the same time, experiments conducted on solutions of ammonium salt showed that ammonia nitrogen removal required much higher energy consumption than theoretically predicted. Thus, the use of recirculation of the gas phase with its purification to reduce the concentration of ammonia nitrogen is inappropriate in terms of energy consumption, while its use to reduce the concentration of sulfides can be regarded as acceptable. A new approach to the removal of ammonia nitrogen from the liquid phase by sorption of ammonia from the gas phase by nonvolatile sorbent, which is located directly in the reactor, but does not contact with the substrate was proposed. Since the results obtained on solutions that simulate the substrate with a high concentration of the inhibitor, indicated the possibility of using the ammonia sorption from the gas phase directly in biogas reactor to adjust the concentration of ammonia nitrogen, this method was used in methane fermentation of chicken manure in semicontinuous mode. Research carried out in thermophilic mode at 50 °C, substrate moisture content 90 % and hydraulic retention time 10 days. In the research apparatus concentration of ammonia nitrogen was lower than in the control apparatus during the whole experiment. The average content of ammonia nitrogen in the research reactor was at the level of 1984 mg/dm3 and in the control reactor – 2994 mg/dm3. The degree of ammonia nitrogen removal was 33.7 %. The concentration of sulfides in the research apparatus was significantly lower than in the control apparatus. The average content of sulfides in the research reactor was 2.2 mg/dm3 and in the control reactor – 211.6 mg/dm3. The degree of sulfides removal in the research reactor was 98.5 %. The content of methane in the research reactor during the experiment was greater than in control reactor or equal to it. The average concentration of methane in the research reactor was 67.5 % and in control reactor – 64.5 %. The difference increased with time. At the end of the experiment the concentration of methane in the research apparatus was by 5.0 % higher than in the control apparatus in absolute terms and by 8.3 % in relative terms. The proposed approach to ammonia nitrogen removal can be used in the processing of other wastes with a high nitrogen content, such as poultry manure, pig manure, manure of large and small cattle, horse manure, slaughterhouse waste, excessive aerobic activated sludge and other. Distinctive features of the developed technology of anaerobic processing of chicken manure are: the use of chicken manure as monosubstrate, continuous operation of biogas plant, the use of thermophilic mode, higher performance of biogas plant, higher quality of produced biogas, increased operation stability of the biogas plant, production of monoammonium phosphate or diammonium phosphate, effluent with low concentration of ammonia nitrogen and sulfides, which creates conditions for recycling of liquid phase. The developed technology is cost-effective. Profit of poultry farm with capacity of 750 thousand of laying hens at technological parameters of the biogas plant operation that took place in the experiment estimated at 63415.4 thousand UAH per year. Production of feed ammonium phosphate allows to increase the profit by 29.2 % without taking into account sales of organic fertilizers
URI (Уніфікований ідентифікатор ресурсу): http://dglib.nubip.edu.ua:8080/jspui/handle/123456789/6126
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