Lolium perenne L.: сорти, адаптація рослин, культурфітоценози




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Дисертація на здобуття наукового ступеня кандидата біологічних наук за спеціальністю 06.03.01 – лісові культури та фітомеліорація. – Національний університет біоресурсів і природокористування України, Київ, 2016. У дисертаційній роботі викладено результати досліджень екологічних властивостей й адаптаційного потенціалу рослин Lolium perenne L. п’яти сортів української селекції на морфологічному, анатомічному, фізіологічному, біохімічному рівнях та особливостей їх використання для створення культурфітоценозів. Уперше представлено результати комплексного оцінювання аутекологічних властивостей рослин сортів 'Андріана-80', 'Лета', 'Литвинівський-1', 'Оріон' і 'Святошинський' та виявлено наявність сортоспецифічних анатомо-морфологічних ознак вегетативних органів рослин української селекції, які можуть слугувати маркерами стійкості проти несприятливих екочинників. Визначено стимулювальну дію нанорозмірних молекулярних кластерів структурованої води на посівні якості насіння рослин сортів української селекції. Виявлено, що вміст флавоноїдів, відновленого глутатіону та фенолів у вегетативних органах рослин виступають визначальними критеріями розподілу сортів за спектром використання


The thesis for awarding a scientific degree of candidate of biological sciences in specialty 06.03.01 – forest plantations and phytomelioration. – National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, 2016. The thesis presents the results of ecological characteristics and adaptive potential of plants Lolium perenne L. of five varieties of Ukrainian breeding on morphological, anatomical, physiological, biochemical levels and features of their usage for creating cultural phytocoenosis. Firstly provided a comprehensive assessment of autecology features of plants varieties 'Adriana-80', 'Leta', 'Lytvynivskyy-1', 'Orion', 'Svyatoshynskyy' and experimentally revealed the presence of variety specific by anatomical and morphological characteristics of vegetative organs of plants Ukrainian selection, which can serve as markers for plant resistance to adverse of ecofactors. According to our research, the most characteristic anatomical features of plant leaves Lolium perenne of five varieties are the presence of thickened cuticle, hard and thickened cell walls of the epidermis, compactly folded mesophyll that causes slowing transpiration by reducing the volume of air in understomata space. Immersed stomata in the epidermis and pubescent adaxial surface contribute to increased friction against the air puff plate and slowing diffusion of moisture. The results of clustering factor by anatomical data indicate that plant varieties 'Andriana-80' and 'Lytvynivskyy-1', 'Svyatoshinskyy' and 'Leta' are most affinity by the anatomical features. Determined stimulated action of nanoscale molecular structured water clusters to crop seeds quality varieties of Ukrainian breeding. An intensification of the processes of caryopsides germination were accompanied by growing morphometric parameters of healthy plants and reducing viability of infected by fungal diseases. The specific structure of water causes the acceleration of biochemical processes in the grains of Lolium perenne which can be used at the primary stages of creation cultural phytocoenosis. The higher quantity of plastid pigments was found in plant leaves variety 'Leta' and the least – 'Orion', which is 7.37 and 2.33 mg/g wet weight. Measurements shown that the pigment content in leaves of plants Lolium perenne variety 'Orion' was in three times lower compared with the plants 'Leta'. The maximum carotenoid contain was fixed in the leaves of variety 'Andriana-80', that was higher on 51 % than in varieties 'Orion' and 30 % – 'Svyatoshinskyy'. It was established that the parameter FT (stationary level of fluorescence) for plant varieties Lolium perenne had no stable values. The fluorescence induction curve has a rapidly decreasing shape that is likely to be specificity for plant varieties Lolium perenne. A detailed analysis of heat-resistance of varieties Lolium perenne has been carried out. It was concluded that they can be divided into three groups in terms of heat-tolerance. The maximum heat-resistance was inherent in plants varieties 'Svyatoshinskyy', 'Lytvynivskyy-1' and 'Andriana-80' average – for the variety 'Leta', minimal – varieties 'Orion'. Established that plant varieties 'Adriana-80' were characterized by high levels of resistance to high temperature stress and damaged their leaf plates does not exceed 50 % by the temperature 40–80 °C. The results indicate that it may be caused by the large stable membranes of chloroplasts, which provides high content of glutathione and antioxidant enzymes. Established that the content of flavonoids, phenols and reduced glutathione in vegetative organs of plants can be served as the determining criteria for the distribution range of grades for their usage. It is shown that the amplitude of flavonoid content in leaves of Lolium perenne varieties varies from 1.44 to 1.89 mg/g. The content of atypical compound of flavonoid group by Rf ~ 0,29 in variety 'Leta' has been found by the method of thin-layer chromatography. The final results of phenols content analysis have demonstrated that the highest content was found in plant variety Lolium perenne 'Orion' (32.95 mg/g) and 'Svyatoshinskyy' (31.83 mg/g) and differ almost in two times comparing with plants variety 'Andriana-80' (15.10 mg/g). According to our measurements the maximum level of reduced glutathione was fixed in plants varieties 'Andriana-80' and 'Lytvynivskyy-1', middle 'Leta' and 'Svyatoshinskyy' and minimal – 'Orion'. Determined that varieties differ slightly in levels of glutathione reductase content (1.787–2.586 nkat/g wet weight), but in the leaves and roots of plants Lolium perenne variety 'Orion' (1.787 nkat/g wet weight) and 'Lytvynivskyy-1' (1.842 nkat/g wet weight) was lower. The data of glutathione-S-transferase levels shown that varieties with high enzymatic activity were 'Leta' and 'Orion' – 50.667, 48.255 nkat/g wet weight, middle – 'Svyatoshinskyy', 'Lytvynivskyy-1'– 45.236 and 44.465 and low – 'Andriana-80' – 39.642 nkat/g wet weight. Determined that active immunity of plants Lolium perenne characterized by morphological-anatomical features of adaptation, passive – depends from the intensity of production constitutional matters phenolic complex state of glutathione-dependent system and photosynthetic apparatus. Varieties plants Lolium perenne peculiar relationship between the content of phenolic compounds and glutathione (the higher phenol content, the lower the content of reduced glutathione) that are likely to result from enzyme inhibition protection due to their inactivation by free radicals, which are necessary for the synthesis of phenolic compounds. The practical recommendations of the usage plant varieties Lolium perenne for creating lawn in a city was elaborate. Dominants on the experimental turf coating were ruderal plants in the sequel of given the failure technology of cultivation and lack of irrigation systems. The overall results of the evaluation and decorative duration show that plants Lolium perenne varieties 'Andriana-80' and 'Leta' are most promising. As a consequence a conclusion is made that varieties 'Adriana-80' and 'Leta' of plants Lolium perenne are most perspective for greening of urban ecosystems in the modern anthropogenic load and can be used exclusively for the arranging cultural phytocoenosis on the lit areas of turf surfaces, as on the second year of their usage in shaded areas occurs the process of plants losing. It is found that under low light conditions their leaf plate becomes light green color and simultaneously loses at the basis of anthocyanin

Ключові слова

адаптація, глутатіон-залежна система, жаростійкість, культурфітоценоз, морфометрія, сорти Lolium perenne L., проективне покриття, феноли, флавоноїди, фотосинтетичні пігменти

Бібліографічний опис

Lolium perenne L.: сорти, адаптація рослин, культурфітоценози: автореф. дис. на здобуття наук. ступеня кандидата біолог. наук: 06.03.01 - лісові культури та фітомеліорація / О. Ю. Лещенко ; Національний університет біоресурсів і природокористування України. - К., 2016. - 23 с