Еколого-економічні засади використання постіндустріальних земель в умовах великого міста




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Дисертація на здобуття наукового ступеня кандидата економічних наук зі спеціальності 08.00.06 «Економіка природокористування і охорони навколишнього середовища». Національний університет біоресурсів і природокористування України. Київ, 2018. Дисертацію присвячено дослідженню механізму раціонального використання постіндустріальних земель в умовах великого міста. Проаналізовано еколого-економічні та соціальні проблеми землекористування у великих містах, які виникли внаслідок урбанізаційних процесів. Удосконалено еколого-економічний механізми деіндустріалізації землекористування у м. Київ та стимулювання інвестиційної діяльності щодо реновації нефункціонуючих підприємств на об’єкти комерційної діяльності. Запропоновано систему позитивної економічної відповідальності забудовників, яка сприятиме збалансованому землекористуванню в умовах великого міста. Розроблено економіко-математичну модель ступеневої множинної регресії, яка дасть змогу прогнозувати вартість земельної ділянки під промисловими об’єктами в місті Київ


Thesis for a candidate of economic sciences, specialty 08.00.06 «Economics of Nature Using and Environment Protection». National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine. Kyiv, 2018. The thesis is devoted to research the mechanisms of rational use of postindustrial land in large cities. Land as a production factor occupies a special position in the economic activities of the urban population. Land resources in big cities are not only territorial basis for placing industrial, productive forces, but also a space for urban life in general. However, to assess the effectiveness of urban land use, primarily should determine the ecological and economic potential of use the urban land resources aimed at sustainable development of urban agglomerations. The rapid pace of developing large cities in the world and increase their impact on the environment and society is accompanied by a set of economic, ecological and social problems, which significantly influence on the development of settlements in general. However, the process of urbanization as a result of rapid scientific and technological revolution requires large areas for deployment large scale production facilities, urban settlements in conditions of natural resource management. The problem of optimization urban land in Kyiv is largely associated with the lack of science-based, rational land use policy. Today, there is a steady trend when in the downtown areas there are no free land parcels for the development of urban infrastructure, while the majority of urban land use is used inefficiently. In particular, the density of building in some urban areas is low, large areas occupied by secondary object, such as: industrial warehouses, virtually non-working enterprises, farm buildings, excessive railways and transport infrastructure. All these factors motivate investors to create new engineering objects in the new (undeveloped) land that in future will leads to increase the costs for laying the communications and their construction, repairing and modernization. So the exploitation these new buildings, from an economic point of view is less effective than reconstruction (modernization, reindustrialization), displacement outside of settlement despite the irrational land using, which also occupy large areas of urban land. However, environmental and economic potential of Kyiv is associated with industrial development within urban land use and expediency of their transforming as inefficient industrial facilities outside the city. The total number of active companies in Kiev is 1.044 industrial and other enterprises, the total area of land they occupy – 3.8 thousands hectares. Nowadays, the largest area of which is occupied by companies producing building material – 1.0 thousand hectares and enterprises of other industries – 1.8 thousand hectares; least – companies of producing and distributing electricity – 0.1 thousand hectares, mining enterprises – 0.1 thousand hectares. Particularly negative impact on the ecological state of Kyiv exercising chemically dangerous objects industry. There is environmental pollution by hazardous chemicals, including: ammonia, hydrochloric acid, caustic soda, chlorine, mercury and other dangerous chemicals. However, according to our calculations, the further development of technologically-hazardous industrial facilities in Kiev should be limited. Given that the zone of possible defeat from the emergency situation covers 93.4 % of the total area of capital city, where living about 96.9 % of the population. Obvious that in ecological and economic aspects the decline of industrial production has led to the negative results, in particular, large industrial areas in Kyiv are in the state of deep stagnation or spontaneously and unsystematically mastered by legal and semi-legal ways, usually without taking into account the real needs of the city and the interests of urban residents. So at the current stage one of the most pressing issues for the Kyiv city became the optimization of non-functioning industrial areas, as a territory reserve, for future development of the city through an integrated approach to their solution. In our opinion, the basic principles of optimizing industrial areas should be focused on the sustainable development the big city, that future purpose of the land use is considered from the standpoint of the need to make a functional element in the urban area, which is located on land. The main factor is meeting the needs of territorialplanning zone of the city: center, median, peripheral. On the other hand, in General Plan of Kyiv, defined not only economic but also the ecological model of city development. From the ecological point of view, envisaged preservation and expansion of the environmental «corridor» for normal life of population. However, sanitary-protection zones enterprises which amounting to 500 meters, does not allow actively explore the area around them. That is why the general plan m. Kyiv envisaged rehabilitation of residential environment by transferring some of the industrial enterprises, which in its environmental, urban planning and other requirements should not be present on current locations. We should also mention that the process of transfer of enterprises or build a new object elsewhere, requires significant investments, which are generally companies do not have. It is therefore necessary to activate all managerial, organizational, administrative measures to find investors who will continue the developing of exempt urban areas, and to help the company with their own investments. Then, the mechanism of attracting investors might be different: auction for lease rights of this land or direct discussions with the signing of relevant documents etc

Ключові слова

раціональне використання земель, міське землекористування, деіндустріалізація, постіндустріальні землі, промислові об’єкти, великі міста

Бібліографічний опис

Еколого-економічні засади використання постіндустріальних земель в умовах великого міста: автореф. дис. ... кандидата економічних наук 08.00.06 "Економіка природокористування та охорони навколишнього середовища" / О.М. Цвях ; Національний університет біоресурсів і природокористування. - К., 2018. - 22 с