Дендрохронологічні засади оцінювання соснових і дубових деревостанів України

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2021

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Анотація

Дисертація на здобуття наукового ступеня доктора сільськогосподарських наук зі спеціальності 06.03.03 «Лісознавство і лісівництво». Національний університет біоресурсів і природокористування України. Київ, 2021. У дисертації наведено теоретичні узагальнення та аналіз даних стосовно особливостей реакції радіального приросту хвойних та кільцесудинних лісових порід на екологічні зміни в лісових екосистемах під впливом кліматичних та антропогенних факторів у різних природних зонах України дендрохронологічними методами. Дослідження базувалися на аналізі радіального приросту сосни звичайної, сосни кримської та дуба звичайного в Поліссі та Лісостепу і сосни кримської на південній частині Кримських гір. Опрацьовано дендрокліматичні методи, у тому числі метод відгуку та дендроіндикаційні методи. Виявлено можливість адаптації деревних видів до зміни клімату та антропогенного навантаження. Виявлено зворотні зв’язки між індексами радіального приросту сосни, пошкоджених емісіями насаджень у роки найбільшого техногенного пресу та прямі – у період зменшення обсягу викидів цементного комбінату «Балцем» Залежність ширини кільця приросту від показників клімату залежить від відстані до джерел забруднення та його інтенсивності. Підвищення температур упродовж вегетаційного та холодного періодів призвело до зменшення тренду радіального приросту сосни в пошкоджених рекреацією та промисловими викидами насадженнях внаслідок порушення зимового спокою дерев, який негативно став впливати на формування річних кілець дерев після 1999 року. Пізня деревина сосни звичайної, сосни кримської та дуба звичайного має найвищу чутливість до змін довкілля і цей показник є сенс використовувати при дендрокліматичному аналізі, що доведено експериментально

Опис

Thesis for a Doctors’s Degree in Agricultural Sciences majoring in 06.03.03 «Forestry and Silviculture». National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine. Kyiv, 2021. Theoretical generalizations and analysis of data on the peculiarities of the response of tree rings of Pinus sylvestris L., Quercus robur L., Pinus nigra subsp. pallasiana to ecological changes in forest ecosystems under the influence of climatic and anthropogenic factors in different natural zones of Ukraine. The research was based on the analysis of tree rings of Scots pine and English oak in Polissya and Forest-Steppe, Crimean pine growing in the stands of the southern part of the Crimean Mountains. The hypothesis of the negative influence of winter, early spring, and vegetation temperatures on the stability of stands in Polissya, Forest-Steppe, and the southern coast of Crimea was confirmed, which was manifested in an increase in the number of significant links between growth indices and climatic factors. The methods used include those common in forestry and forest assessment, comparative ecology, and dendrochronology. Dendrochronology studies of early 46 wood, late wood, and annual tree ring width reveal the complex indicators that reflect the condition of forest stands. Pine and oak forests of the Forest-Steppe at this stage were able to adapt to climate change in contrast to the pine stands in Polissya, which suffer the most from climate change. At the same time, stands have become more sensitive to climate change, as evidenced by the increasing relationship between climatic factors and radial growth, which indicates a decrease in the resilience of forest ecosystems. After the drought of 2008, an intensive decline of oak stands in Polissya began, but after selective sanitary felling, the radial growth stabilized and even increased slightly for some stands. This indicates the adaptation of surviving trees to climate change and groundwater levels in 2011–2014. During 1989–2014, the radial growth of English oak in Polissya was limited by high temperatures during the growing season, early spring and winter, as well as an increase in precipitation during the cold period. A comparison of the response of radial growth to climate change in 1960–1988 revealed a positive effect of winter and early spring temperatures on the radial growth of oak in Polissya and the Forest-Steppe. In 1989–2013, on the contrary, a significant increase in winter and early spring temperatures caused a decrease in radial growth. In the second period, the oak stands of Polissya suffered more from warm winters than the stands of Forest-Steppe. The negative impact of the growing season droughts on growth intensified in the second period for both regions. During the second period, precipitation significantly lost its positive effect on growth in the stands of both Polissya and Forest-Steppe. In the Polissya part of the Novohrad-Volynskyi physical-geographical district, where mostly oak stands grow, during 2008–2013 the groundwater level decreased in most areas. It was a consequence of a decrease in the average annual precipitation by 10–13% of the norm and rising temperatures, especially winter and early spring. This led to the rapid melting of snow, increased surface runoff, and reduced soil moisture, which negatively affected the radial growth. At the same time, in the drainage system which is located in the southern part of the Novograd-Volyn physical-geographical district (Forest-Steppe), the table water level increased due to the unsatisfactory condition of channels, soil cover, and parent rocks. The sensitivity coefficient of the index tree-ring series, which increased in recreationally damaged pine stands by 41–67 % compared to the control, indicates a significant decrease in the stability of these stands. The correlation coefficient between the tree-ring chronologies, which is much lower in damaged stands than in the control, indicates an anomaly of the radial growth of pine. The depression of the radial tree growth in recreationally damaged stands is aggravated mainly by droughts and low winter temperatures. Restoration of the radial growth of trees in recreationally damaged stands after exposure to adverse weather conditions takes 1–2 years longer than in the control. As the recreational load increases, the radial growth of pine trees decreases, and the coefficient of variation increases. Restoration of radial growth of trees in recreationally damaged stands after exposure to adverse weather conditions (drought, low winter temperatures) lasts 1–2 years longer than in the control. 47 The radial growth of oak stands in the green zone of Kharkiv during 1995–2008 decreased as the level of damage increased: the width of the ring was decreased to the control at the plots of the second stage of digression – by 7 %, the third – by 16 % and the fourth – by 27 %. The pointer years of minimal growth (1975, 1983, 1984, 1987, 1990, 1994, 1996, 2002, and 2007) were characterized by droughts and low temperatures in winter and early spring, except for 2007 with extremely warm winters and early spring. Pointer years of the radial growth of pine were observed in 1980, 1989, 1997, and 2004 with a favorable ratio of heat and moisture for tree growth. High synchronicity between annual ring thickness and late and early oak wood species was found in almost all research plots, except for the most damaged plantation with the fourth stage of recreational digression, where late wood has less close correlations with tree ring index and early wood index, indicating damage to pine stands by recreation. For pine stands under the influence of cement plant emissions («Baltsem»), it has been established that the sensitivity coefficient and autoregression of the first order of tree-ring chronologies can be used as indicators of stand state. Correlations between radial growth indices for emission-damaged stands during the years of the largest industrial loading (1978–1988) were negative and positive correlations for the period of emission reductions – in 1989–2009 were revealed. Droughts and high winter and early spring temperatures deepen radial depressions of pine growth in stands damaged by emissions. The decrease in the trend of radial growth of pine in 2005–2010 is caused not only by chronic pollution of forest ecosystems but also by an increase in winter and early spring temperatures, which exceeded the optimal threshold for tree growth. For pine stands under the influence of emissions from the Zmiiv Thermal Power Plant, it was found that in 1969–1978 the pine radial growth was limited by precipitation and temperatures during the year and the growing season. In the following 1979–1988, the increment in damaged stands was limited by March temperatures and precipitation during the growing season. In 1989–1998, further increases in temperatures during the winter and March periods led to improved growth at all research plots. In 1999–2008, further intensive warming in winter and early spring exceeded the optimum threshold for tree growth, which led to a reduction in radial pine growth against the background of chronic pollution of forest ecosystems, despite decrease emissions. The effectiveness of a combination of the dendrochronological, silvicultural, taxonomic, and comparative ecology methods is theoretically and practically proved. The correlation coefficient between tree-ring chronologies of trees, sensitivity coefficient, first-order autoregression, coefficient of variation, results of correlation analysis between tree-ring chronologies, and climatic factors should be used as indicators of oak and pine stands condition under the influence of climate and anthropogenic load in Polissya, Forest-steppe, and mountainous Crimea.

Ключові слова

дендрохронологічні методи, сосна звичайна, сосна кримська, дуб звичайний, зміни клімату, рекреація, повітряне забруднення, Полісся, Лісостеп, південні схили Кримських гір

Бібліографічний опис

Дендрохронологічні засади оцінювання соснових і дубових деревостанів України: автор. дис. . доктора с.-г. наук: 06.03.03 "Лісознавство і лісівництво" (с.-г. науки) / І.М. Коваль ; Національний університет біоресурсів і природокористування. - Київ, 2021. - 47 с.

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