Розвиток і використання біоенергетичного потенціалу сільськогосподарських підприємств




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Дисертація на здобуття наукового ступеня кандидата економічних наук зі спеціальності 08.00.04 «Економіка та управління підприємствами (за видами економічної діяльності)». Національний університет біоресурсів і природо-користування України. Київ, 2018. Дисертацію присвячено розробленню теоретичних положень та методичних рекомендацій, спрямованих на підвищення ефективності використання біоенергетичного потенціалу сільськогосподарських підприємств. У межах поставлених завдань досліджено сутність біоенергетичного потенціалу, доповнено методичні підходи до його оцінки та надано практичні рекомендації щодо ефективності його використання. Проаналізовано основні тенденції та нинішній стан розвитку біоенергетичного потенціалу сільського господарства в Україні та світі. Обґрунтовано концептуальні засади розвитку, формування і використання біоенергетичного потенціалу аграрних формувань. В основу концептуальних підходів покладено методику оцінки, яка передбачає визначення кількісних та енергетичних параметрів біоенергетичного потенціалу сільськогосподарських підприємств у комплексі з аналізом факторів його формування й ефективного розвитку. Розглянуто аспекти раціонального використання біоенергетичного потенціалу з огляду на продовольчу та енергетичну безпеку країни, визначено фактори сприяння ефективному розвитку біоенергетичного потенціалу сільсько-господарських підприємств та підвищення ефективності функціонування аграрного сектору України.


Thesis for the degree of candidate of economic sciences specialty 08.00.04 Economic and Management of Enterprises. National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine. Kyiv, 2018. The State of Ukraine, with its substantial agro potential, showing certain pace of implementation of biomass simultaneous using policies, however it is far from progress of other EU countries where combination of simultaneous using of fossil fuels, biomass and other renewable energy sources have reached the level where it becomes economically justified and being implemented in business activity of agro formations as well as small and medium size agro production companies. Ukraine’s biomass energy production currently accounts low share of total energy consumption. It remains largely untapped. This is particularly true for biomass conversion into alternative energy resource and using it by the agro companies with gaining of the economic effect, which is the focus of this dissertation. Nowadays in Ukraine, the necessity of using of biomass in economic activity of agro formations gains more and more practical implementations. With the growing prices for energy resources, that is observed, and instability of its sufficient supply agro formations are being motivated to switching from using conventional fossil fuels and electricity/heat generated sources to energy produced from biomass. Biomass is renewable energy resource, which can significantly change the whole framework of the business activity of agro formations in Ukraine. Biomass as an alternative resource is becoming widely promoted through the international network of energy associations, private funds and government institutions (including State agency for energy efficiency and energy saving of Ukraine, National energy regulatory commission of Ukraine, European bank for reconstruction and development, Organization for economic co-operation and development). The reason for this promo activeness comes from availability of the bunch of advantages that biomass can bring to the business activity of agro formations as well as effect that can be achieved globally in a view of greenhouse gas emissions policies, carbon footprint fight and reducing of fossil fuels dependency. The prospective effect of implementing of biomass energy into the structure of business activity of agro formations in Ukraine comes out of the fact that Ukraine`s potential capacity for biomass processing market is seen to be one of the biggest in the world due to the country`s extensive agricultural output across all regions. On the other side the implementation of partial or total use of biomass energy in a day-to-day business activity of agro companies allows them to diversify the supply of the energy and mitigate the risks of fossil price exposure. In some cases there is a possibility of development of an «ideal scenario» where the producer grows the crops and using it as a source for biomass to: diversify or substitute energy supply source; supply of energy for further processing of the crop, product, goods; selling of the excessive amount of the biomass product to the market. In this way, it would be an optimistic scenario for any agro company to carry out in practice and targeting. However most of real cases showing that using of biomass without growing it can also bring positive effect on the company`s economic activity. Thus, development of the biomass supply market has a great potential for both - producers of biomass energy resources and end users of biomass energy resources. It must be admitted that biomass energy production at the level of agro formations cannot exist on its own, it has to be a part of a more global system that includes all elements for effective development as well as to be widely supported at the State level. Systematic and multipronged approach to implementation of biomass energy production policy is a key to effective development of alternative energy. In strict economic terms the response to the question, is agricultural biomass production economically viable, is not at present without government support in most cases, however there are number of exceptions that has to be carefully studied and reviewed. The potential of renewable energy is enormous as it can in principle meet the world’s energy demand. An ability of agro sector to supply with feedstock is enough to make bio energy/heat production to be sustainable. Renewable energy sources such as biomass, wind, solar, hydropower, and geothermal can provide sustainable energy services, based on the use of available resources. A transition to renewables – based energy systems is looking increasingly likely as their costs decline while the price of fossil fuels continue to fluctuate. Conventional fuel and renewable energy prices are heading in opposite directions and the economic and policy mechanisms needed to support the widespread dissemination and sustainable markets for renewable energy systems are rapidly developing. It is becoming obvious that future growth in the energy sector will be primarily based on renewable energy, and to some extent natural conventional fuels systems (not in conventional oil and coal sources). Because of these developments market opportunity now available to both innovate and to take advantage of emerging markets to promote renewable energy technologies, with the additional assistance of governmental and popular sentiment. The development and use of renewable energy sources can enhance diversity in energy supply markets, contribute to securing long term sustainable energy supplies, help reduce local and global CO2 emissions, and provide commercially attractive options to meet specific energy service needs helping to create new employment opportunities there. Agro formations are playing important role by taking part in the cycle of the energy production through supplying and processing of a feedstock. The potential of the agro sourced biomass energy production in Ukraine is one of the biggest in the world allowing agro formations to develop their strategies of implementing of bioenergy into their activity as well as establishing investment market for bioenergy. Current research work is focused on problematic of the development of bioenergy potential of agro sector. Applying of advanced methods of cluster modeling, with taking into account economical concept of bioenergy potential of agro sector, allows creating specialized bioenergy clusters. As a method, cluster modeling provides analysis tools for making clustering of objects with predefined properties. Related clustering allows determining the share of object in comparison with others. In this thesis work, the bioenergy potential of agricultural industry was given advanced analysis with the purpose of its sourcing and integration into energy sector of the economy. Respective analytical researches are fundamental for development of energy and agricultural industry sectors and implementation of elements of sustainable development into economic activities.

Ключові слова

біоенергетичний потенціал, ефективність, біоенергетика, агропаливо, продовольча безпека, енергетична безпека, екосистема, сталий розвиток

Бібліографічний опис

Розвиток і використання біоенергетичного потенціалу сільськогосподарських підприємств: автореф. дис. ... кандидата економічних наук 08.00.04 "Економіка та управління підприємствами (за видами економічної діяльності)" / В.В. Мельниченко ; Національний університет біоресурсів і природокористування України. - К., 2018. - 20 с.